EUROPEAN UNION

EUROPEAN UNION

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Overall construction activity

The Covid pandemic provoked an unpredecent economic crisis, with EU GDP contracting by 5.9% in 2020. European economies began recovering from the effects of the crisis in 2021, with the EU’s GDP growing by 5.3%. This growth was driven, to a large extent, by an increase in domestic demand. In Italy, for example, gross fixed capital formation rose in volume by 17.0%. Nevertheless, the effects of the Covid pandemic were still felt in the economy. In several Member States, such as Austria and Spain, growth was slower during the second half of the year due to a spike in cases. This slower growth can, however, also be attributable to rising inflation.

While the effects of Covid on the economy have waned, several problems affecting the construction industry still persist. In several Member States there is a lack of skilled construction workers. In Germany, for example, roughly a quarter of construction companies consider this to be a major issue of concern. Another major concern is the supply and prices of construction materials. The ongoing war in Ukraine has further disrupted supply chains and prices of raw materials continue to rise. Energy prices have also gone up significantly. These developments have the potential to slow down  construction activity this year and the first signs of this are already visible. 

Overall, construction activity in Europe began recovering in 2021. Strongth growth was registered in several Member States. In France construction activity increased by 10.5% in volume, after a decrease by 14.4% the previous year. In other Member States, however, the decline in activity in 2020 was compensated by the growth observed in 2021.This was the case in Austria where construction activity increased by 5.4% in 2021 after a decrease of 3.7% in 2020. Growth is expected to be overall slower in 2022. While the outlook for most Member States is generally positive, some have yet to begin recovering from the crisis. In Bulgaria, for example, the construction output decreased by 30,7% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the impact of the on-going war in Ukraine is seriously undermining the developments of construction activity and thereby leaving a significant level of uncertainty about the overall forecast.

Construction had a stronger recovery than initially expected in summer 2021, when FIEC forecasted an increase in investment of 4.2%. Total investment in construction increased by 5.2% in 2021 and amounted to €1.6 trillion, corresponding to 11.1% of EU GDP. Italy (+16.4%) registered the largest increase in investment, followed by Estonia (+10.7%), Greece (+10.6%) and France (+10.5%). While a majority of countries experienced a growth in investment in construction, Spain experienced a slight decline (-0.9%). However, Bulgaria is the country hit the hardest as investment went down by 19.2% compared to the previous year  In 2021, investment in construction is expected to resume growth at a rate of 2.2% with all segments expected to continue recovering.  All countries are expected to get back on track, particularly Spain (+5.4%). Ireland is predicted to have the strongest growth (+7.3%). 

In terms of employment, the sector employed 12.3 million workers in 2021, an increase of 3.8% compared to 2020. An increase of 2.4% is projected for 2022.





GDP 2021

14448
BILLION

POPULATION 2021

444786000

Total investment in construction in 2021

1602
BILLION

Housebuilding

New housebuilding represents about one-fifth of the total investment in construction. Rising by 7.2% in 2021, it was one of the main drivers of the overall increase in construction investment. Being among the heavyweights in construction, the recovery was mainly driven by the substantial increases recorded in France (+24.1%) and Italy (+12.05%) with a smaller increase in Germany (+2.3%). On the contrary, a decline was recorded for Spain (-4.8%), the only country for which this happened. 

In 2022, markets in most countries are forecasted to grow. In France and Italy investment in new housebuilding is expected to rise by more than 10%. Along with Spain (+5.4%), France (+15.0%) and Italy (+10.2%)  will be the main drivers of growth in this segment in 2022. Overall, investment in new housebuilding is forecasted to increase by 5.7% with the largest rise expected in Slovenia (+15.7%), a country coming off the back of two years of strong growth in this segment, with Ireland (+15.0%) coming as a close second. Growth can be explained by housing shortages and favourable financing conditions in many countries. 




Rehabilitation and maintenance

Investment in renovation represents slightly under one-third of total investment in construction. Having proven to be the least volatile segment over the last decade and having served as a stabiliser in the aftermath of the financial crisis from 2008, investment in renovation works went up by 5.7% in 2021 – after a decrease of 2.6% the previous year.  Investment in renovation is most significant in Bulgaria, Italy and Slovenia, with increases of over 20%. Nevertheless, investment in renovation is expected to slow down, growing at rate of 1.1% in 2022. 

In the longer term, however, this segment has the potential of becoming an even more substantial driver of growth for the construction sector as the renovation of buildings is being put at the heart of European and national climate policies, in particular through the Renovation Wave, presented by the European Commission in October 2020.  According to the European Commission, additional annual investments of €275 billion are needed to renovate and decarbonise the existing building stock which could lead to the creation of 160,000 new jobs.




Non-residential construction

Investment in non-residential construction, such as the construction of offices, hospitals, hotels, schools, industrial buildings, experienced an increase of 2.6% in 2021, in line with previous year’s forecast. Growth for this segment was much lower than that for housebuilding and civil engeneering. Investment in this segment is forecasted to increase only by 2.4% remaining still below the pre-crisis level.

This increase in investment in non-residential construction was mainly driven by growth in the public component which recorded a 7.0% increase. Investment in private non-residential construction was much lower, rising by only 1.7%. The slower growth for the private component was expected as the European Commission had predicted that 45% of firms would reduce their investment in 2021. This was most noticeable in Spain, which registered a decline of 17.9% in the provide. Also in line with expectations, a decline in investment was recorded in several markets, most notably Slovenia (-32.5%) and Spain (-10.2%) except for Denmark and Ireland.




Civil engineering

Civil engineering proved to be the strongest in comparison to the other segments - investment rose by 10.1% in 2021. Looking at countries individually, strong growth rates were recorded in Denmark (+12.0%), Spain (+78.1%) and Italy (+15.0%). On the contrary, a significant decline was registered in Bulgaria (-33.2%). 

Overall, the implementation of large infrastructure projects, in particular railway projects, had a stabilising effect within the segment in 2020. The acceleration and the launch of new projects are expected to sustain growth in 2021. At a growth rate of 2.5%, investment is projected to reach the pre-crisis level in 2022. A strong growth rates are forecasted for Italy (+8.5%) while investment is expected to stagnate in Germany (+0.4%). Nevertheless, in both Finland (-1.0%) and Sweden (-5.2%), investment in this segment is expected to decline. 

The evolution in the longer term will very much depend on the economic climate. Risks can especially be associated to budget cuts of local and regional authorities, which account for a significant share of investment in civil engineering. In addition, a surge in the price for energy and raw materials is becoming problematic for construction companies which are increasingly reluctant in participating in public tenders.




European Union* - Union européenne* - Europäische Union*

Variation of investment in construction in real terms on previous year (%)
Variation d'investissement dans la construction sur l'année précédente (%)
Reale Veränderungsrate der Bauinvestitionen im Vergleich zum Vorjahr (%)

 
  2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
1. Building -3.0 0.1 1.0 2.6 3.8 3.6 2.5 -5.0 5.2 2.4
1.1. Housebuilding -3.1 1.4 0.7 5.1 4.8 3.2 1.8 -3.7 7.2 2.4
1.1.1. New Housebuilding -4.5 -0.1 3.4 6.1 8.3 3.7 2.3 -6.5 8.8 4.6
1.1.2 . Renovation -0.6 3.2 -0.7 4.1 2.7 3.4 2.6 -2.6 5.7 1.2
1.2. Non-residential** -3.3 -1.4 0.8 0.2 2.6 3.8 3.3 -6.2 2.6 2.4
1.2.1. Non-residential Private*** -2.8 -1.9 0.4 1.1 2.3 3.0 2.1 -5.7 1.7 1.9
1.2.2. Non-residential Public*** -0.6 2.8 -2.3 0.9 3.7 3.0 3.6 -3.6 7.0 2.1
2. Civil Engineering 2.8 3.5 -3.8 -1.1 3.1 6.7 2.4 -3.0 10.1 2.5
(1+2) Total Construction -2.6 0.3 0.2 1.7 3.3 4.0 2.5 -4.4 5.2 2.4
 
* Per cent variation corresponds to EU27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO
** incl. R&M
***Not all countries have data for non-residential public and non-residential private. Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

GROSS VALUE ADDED - CONSTRUCTION / TOTAL ECONOMY
VALEUR AJOUTEE BRUTE - CONSTRUCTION / TOTAL ECONOMIE
BRUTTOWERTSCHÖPFUNG - BAUGEWERBE / GESAMTWIRTSCHAFT

 
  2021a current prices in Bln. €
  (1) constr. (2) total economy (1)/(2)
COUNTRY   %
Germany 177.8 3,050 5.8%
France 106.6 2,052 5.2%
Italy 65.8 1,498 4.4%
Spain 63.7 1,024 6.2%
Poland 33.2 461 7.2%
Netherlands 38.8 714 5.4%
Sweden 30.1 470 6.4%
Austria 23.8 340 7.0%
Belgium 21.6 410 5.3%
Finland 15.2 219 6.9%
Denmark 17.4 272 6.4%
Romania 14.4 198 7.2%
Czech Republic 11.2 196 5.7%
Ireland 7.7 352 2.2%
Portugal 8.4 174 4.8%
Slovakia 6.4 82 7.8%
Hungary 6.6 116 5.7%
Greece 2.8 145 1.9%
Luxembourg 3.5 59 5.9%
Lithuania 8.9 117 7.6%
Croatia 2.6 42 6.1%
Slovenia 2.5 41 6.0%
Bulgaria 2.6 53 4.5%
Estonia 1.6 23 6.7%
Latvia 1.8 29 6.3%
Cyprus 1.2 19 6.1%
Malta 0.6 13 4.5%
EU 677 12,173 5.6%
Norway 28 322 8.7%

 

INVESTMENT IN CONSTRUCTION / GDP - INVESTISSEMENT DANS LA CONSTRUCTION / PIB - BAUINVESTITIONEN / BIP

 
  2021a current prices in Bln. €
  (1) constr. (2) GDP (1)/(2)
COUNTRY   %
Germany 414 3,571 11.6%
France 324 2,484 13.0%
Italy 170 1,775 9.6%
Spain 119 1,205 9.9%
Netherlands 96 861 11.1%
Sweden 58 530 10.9%
Poland 49 570 8.6%
Belgium 59 507 11.7%
Austria 49 403 12.2%
Finland 36 253 14.2%
Denmark 38 336 11.4%
Ireland 27 422 6.3%
Romania 34 240 14.0%
Czech Republic 27 239 11.3%
Hungary 22 154 14.5%
Portugal 23 211 10.9%
Slovakia 9 97 9.0%
Greece 8 183 4.1%
Bulgaria 5 68 7.0%
Luxembourg 8 73 10.3%
Croatia 7 57 11.6%
Estonia 4 31 12.6%
Lithuania 6 55 11.0%
Slovenia 4 52 8.5%
Cyprus 3 23 11.2%
Latvia 4 33 11.8%
Malta 2 15 11.5%
EU27 1,602 14,448 11.1%
Norway 60 408 14.6%
       
 

 

Total construction - Total construction - Bauwesen

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020a 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 48,285 5.5 4.0 -3.7 5.4 2.6
BE - Belgium 41,291 3.2 1.1 -4.5 6.6 1.9
BG - Bulgaria 7,489 11.3 3.2 35.4 -19.2 N/A
CZ - Czech Rep. 18,433 6.9 3.2 -7.3 4.8 1.0
DE - Germany 326,700 2.6 1.1 2.5 0.7 1.0
DK - Denmark 31,464 3.4 2.0 10.4 7.1 1.3
EE - Estonia 3,163 13.2 7.0 -2.6 10.7 N/A
ES - Spain 100,839 9.5 5.2 -11.5 -0.9 5.4
FI - Finland 32,645 3.5 0.6 -1.8 2.0 1.0
FR - France 162,975 2.4 1.3 -14.4 10.5 3.5
GR - Greece 7,382 -11.2  -14.7 3.2 10.6 N/A
IE - Ireland 23,784 10.1 5.7 -4.4 2.7 7.3
IT - Italy 137,450 1.7 2.7 -6.2 16.4 0.5
NL - Netherlands 81,625 7.9 5.9 -1.5 1.8 5.0
PL - Poland 47,363 10.9 7.5 -8.5 5.9 4.1
PT - Portugal 21,856 4.7 7.6 1.6 4.3 3.3
SE - Sweden 52,076 1.9 0.0 -0.4 0.8 0.5
SI - Slovenia 2,168 18.7 3.9 1.2 0.2 10.4
EU - European Union* 1,146,987 4.0 2.5 -4.4 5.2 2.4
NO - Norway 41,838 -1.5 1.7 -0.7 6.5 2.5
 

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Building - Bâtiment - Hochbau

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 39.067 4,0 4,2 -4,3 5,3 2,8
BE - Belgium 33.499 2,7 0,6 -6,2 7,5 1,5
BG - Bulgaria 3.665 7,6 3,1 -5,3 3,5 n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 10.858 10,3 2,6 -11,9 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 282.200 2,4 1,1 2,5 0,5 1,1
DK - Denmark 24.394 3,5 2,6 9,3 6,0 0,4
EE - Estonia 2.112 20,0 1,3 -4,3 13,6 n/a
ES - Spain 88.082 7,6 6,1 -9,8 -6,9 5,4
FI - Finland 23.052 5,0 -0,8 -1,9 2,5 1,9
FR - France 125.812 1,1 1,0 -15,2 12,0 4,2
IE - Ireland 20.263 11,8 8,0 -2,9 2,5 8,0
IT - Italy 119.43 2,4 1,8 -7,5 16,6 -0,7
NL - Netherlands 63.875 9,1 7,8 -2,7 2,9 5,5
PL - Poland 31.800 4,5 8,2 -10,0 7,1 3,5
PT - Portugal 11.528 6,1 9,5 1,2 2,8 1,6
SE - Sweden 42.782 1,6 -2,6 -3,4 5,9 1,8
SI - Slovenia 892 20,0 3,3 -0,7 -5,8 9,5
EU - European Union 1.042.741 3,6 2,5 -5,0 5,2 2,4
NO - Norway 29.261 -3,9 1,7 -0,9 3,6 -1,5
 

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Housebuilding - Logement - Wohnungsbau

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 21.407 2,1 4,5 -0,6 3,2 2,2
BE - Belgium 20.464 1,9 3,6 -1,6 6,7 1,5
BG - Bulgaria 1.887 -0,8 2,3 2,2 5,3 n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 4.057 10,7 21,2 -10,0 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 203.300 3,0 1,5 3,4 1,3 1,5
DK - Denmark 15.203 4,8 4,7 10,1 6,0 2,0
EE - Estonia n/a 21,2 -5,1 11,9 n/a n/a
ES - Spain 54.782 13,1 6,7 -11,2 -4,8 5,4
FI - Finland 12.487 3,7 -4,1 -2,0 5,7 1,7
FR - France 74.588 -0,1 -0,5 -15,1 14,5 5,6
GR - Greece 2.260 22,2 17,4 14,1 26,4 n/a
IE - Ireland 7.405 19,9 -1,8 -5,4 7,2 11,5
IT - Italy 67.195 0,4 -0,9 -7,7 21,8 -5,6
NL - Netherlands 36.175 10,6 5,9 -3,6 3,6 6,4
PL - Poland 10.756 -10,1 4,3 1,1 9,7 5,1
PT - Portugal 6.315 8,2 13,7 3,5 4,5 3,3
SE - Sweden 26.062 -6,4 -6,5 3,3 11,1 2,6
SI - Slovenia 565 14,2 2,6 48,6 22,0 8,0
EU - European Union 598.824 3,2 1,8 -3,7 7,2 2,4
NO - Norway 16.433 -4,6 -0,4 -1,2 6,0 -2,9
 

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

New housebuilding - Logement neuf - Wohnungsneubau

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 14.947 3,5 4,8 -0,8 3,0 1,8
BE - Belgium 8.365 3,0 5,2 -6,7 10,1 1,8
BG - Bulgaria 3.665 7,6 3,1 -5,3 3,5 n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 2.018 -10,1 14,8 -16,6 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 71.900 4,6 4,5 1,4 2,3 1,5
DK - Denmark 6.994 7,4 4,7 23,5 6,0 6,0
ES - Spain 41.950 13,1 6,7 -11,2 -4,8 5,4
FI - Finland 5.925 10,0 -7,3 -4,9 10,8 2,0
FR - France 32.988 -0,7 -1,3 -24,2 24,1 7,3
IE - Ireland 4.728 23,6 12,3 -3,6 9,1 15,0
IT - Italy 15.100 -0,1 -3,7 -9,7 12,0 4,5
NL - Netherlands 17.050 13,7 8,5 -10,1 8,9 10,2
PL - Poland 8.000 -2,5 4,5 4,3 9,6 5,0
PT - Portugal 3.675 6,4 15,5 -0,7 3,9 2,9
SE - Sweden 13.690 -11,1 -15,1 1,2 18,4 5,5
SI - Slovenia 274 16,3 -5,0 34,7 20,6 15,7
EU - European Union 251.270 3,7 2,3 -6,5 8,8 4,6
NO - Norway 9.713 -8,8 -2,4 -4,1 9,7 -6,2
 

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Renovation - Rénovation - Renovierung

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 6.459 -0,9 3,9 0,0 3,5 3,2
BE - Belgium 12.099 1,1 2,5 2,0 4,5 1,3
BG - Bulgaria 232 -6,6 -4,0 -17,0 28,2 n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 2.040 98,2 29,4 -2,4 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 131.400 1,2 4,0 1,3 0,7 1,4
DK - Denmark 8.210 3,0 4,7 0,7 6,0 -1,4
EE - Estonia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
ES - Spain 12.831 13,1 6,7 -11,2 -4,8 5,4
FI - Finland 6.562 -1,6 -1,2 0,6 1,5 1,5
FR - France 41.599 0,4 0,2 -7,4 7,8 4,3
IE - Ireland 2.677 15,8 -18,3 -8,4 4,0 5,4
IT - Italy 52.095 0,5 0,1 -7,0 25,0 -8,5
NL - Netherlands 19.125 8,0 3,6 2,5 -0,8 3,0
PL - Poland 2.800 -25,1 3,8 -7,4 12,0 3,6
PT - Portugal 2.640 11,0 10,8 10,2 5,2 3,8
SE - Sweden 12.373 0,1 4,4 5,4 4,0 -0,6
SI - Slovenia 291 11,4 13,4 65,1 23,5 0,7
EU - European Union 313.167 3,4 2,6 -2,6 5,7 1,2
NO - Norway 6.720 2,4 2,5 2,9 1,2 1,9
 
* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Non residential - Non résidentiel - Nichtwohnbau

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 17.660 6,3 3,9 -8,6 8,0 3,5
BE - Belgium 13.035 3,9 -3,4 -12,7 8,8 1,4
BG - Bulgaria 1.778 16,5 3,8 -12,0 1,7 n/a
DE - Germany 78.900 1,0 0,3 0,2 -1,3 0,1
DK - Denmark 9.190 1,5 -0,8 8,1 6,0 -2,2
ES - Spain 33.300 -0,1 5,1 -7,6 -10,2 5,4
FI - Finland 10.564 6,6 3,2 -1,9 -1,1 2,0
FR - France 51.224 2,9 3,1 -15,5 8,7 2,2
IE - Ireland 12.858 7,1 14,4 -1,5 -0,1 6,0
IT - Italy 52.235 5,0 5,1 -7,2 10,5 5,7
NL - Netherlands 27.700 7,2 10,3 -1,5 2,1 4,3
PL - Poland 21.000 12,2 9,9 -14,6 5,5 2,9
PT - Portugal 5.213 3,9 5,1 -1,4 0,9 -0,5
SE - Sweden 16.720 14,3 2,4 -11,4 -1,2 0,5
SI - Slovenia 327 23,1 3,6 -24,6 -32,5 12,0
EU - European Union 358.506 3,8 3,3 -6,2 2,6 2,4
NO - Norway 12.828 -2,9 4,4 -0,5 0,6 0,3

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Non residential private - Non résidentiel privé - Nichtwohnbau privat

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
BE - Belgium 8.098 3,9 -3,4 -12,7 8,8 1,4
BG - Bulgaria n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 4.576 26,0 -9,7 -17,8 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 65.200 1,1 0,3 -1,1 -1,1 0,0
DK - Denmark 5.055 1,5 -0,8 8,1 6,0 -2,2
EE - Estonia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
ES - Spain 26.924 -2,9 3,1 -4,7 -17,9 5,4
FI - Finland 8.029 6,6 3,2 -1,9 -1,1 2,0
FR - France 29.259 2,9 4,5 -15,9 9,9 3,1
IE - Ireland 7.715 7,1 14,4 -1,5 -0,1 6,0
IT - Italy 42.429 6,7 4,3 -9,1 9,5 5,0
NL - Netherlands n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
PL - Poland n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
PT - Portugal 3.135 3,2 5,5 -2,9 -1,0 -1,6
SE - Sweden 10.736 17,1 4,2 -9,9 0,9 0,7
SI - Slovenia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
EU - European Union 211.154 3,0 2,1 -5,7 1,7 1,9
NO - Norway 7.555 -1,1 2,4 -7,5 3,1 0,9
 

* Not all countries have this data. The total value relates to the listed countries.

**Not all countries have data for non-residential public and non-residential private. EU 27 without : AT, BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LT, LU, LV, MT, NL, PL, RO, Sl, SK

 

Non residential public - Non résidentiel public - Nichtwohnbau öffentlich

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
BE - Belgium 4.937 3,9 -3,4 -12,7 8,8 1,4
BG - Bulgaria n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 2.225 -19,4 5,4 -1,2 4,8 1,0
DE - Germany 13.737 1,0 0,1 6,6 -2,2 0,5
DK - Denmark 4.136 1,5 -0,8 8,1 6,0 -2,2
EE - Estonia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
ES - Spain 6.377 24,2 18,8 -25,0 47,4 5,4
FI - Finland 2.535 6,6 3,2 -1,9 -1,1 2,0
FR - France 21.966 2,8 1,4 -14,9 7,1 1,0
IE - Ireland 5.143 7,1 14,4 -1,5 -0,1 6,0
IT - Italy 9.806 -3,2 9,5 2,6 15,0 8,5
NL - Netherlands n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
PL - Poland n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
PT - Portugal 2.078 5,2 4,5 1,0 4,0 1,3
SE - Sweden 5.983 10,2 -0,4 -13,8 -4,9 0,2
SI - Slovenia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
EU - European Union 78.924 3,0 3,6 -3,6 7,0 2,1
NO - Norway 5.273 -5,8 7,9 10,8 -2,7 -0,6
 

* Not all countries have this data. The total value relates to the listed countries.

**Not all countries have data for non-residential public and non-residential private. EU 27 without : AT, BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LT, LU, LV, MT, NL, PL, RO, Sl, SK

 

Civil engineering - Génie civil - Tiefbau

 
  (Mln. € fixed prices) Per cent variation in real terms on previous year (fixed prices)
COUNTRY 2021a 2018 2019 2020 2021a 2022b
AT - Austria 9.218 12,6 2,9 -1 5,9 1,8
BE - Belgium 7.792 5,1 3,5 3,0 3,0 3,7
BG - Bulgaria 3.824 16,0 3,4 84,4 -33,2 n/a
CZ - Czech Rep. 7.575 1,7 4,4 0,1 4,8 1,0 
DE - Germany 44.500 3,6 0,6 2,6 1,6 0,4
EE - Estonia 1.051 -0,1 20,7 0,7 5,3 n/a
ES - Spain 12.757 31,2 -3,6 -28,5 78,1 5,4
FI - Finland 9.593 0,1 4,0 -1,5 1,0 -1,0
FR - France 37.163 7,0 2,4 -11,6 5,5 1,0
GR - Greece 5.122 -16,1 -21,6 -0,3 4,8 n/a
IE - Ireland 3.521 3,0 -4,8 -12,5 3,8 3,2
IT - Italy 18.020 -3,2 9,5 2,6 15,0 8,5
NL - Netherlands 17.750 3,8 -0,3 2,7 -2,1 3,1
PL - Poland 15.600 27,1 5,3 -5,1 4,0 3,8
PT - Portugal 10.328 3,2 5,5 2,0 6,0 5,2
SE - Sweden 9.293 4,1 12,6 12,2 -17,7 -5,2
SI - Slovenia 1.276 17,7 4,4 2,7 4,8 11,0
EU - European Union 206.738 6,7 2,4 -3,0 10,1 2,5
NO - Norway 12.577 5,0 1,8 0,0 13,9 11,8
 

* Per cent variation corresponds to EU 27 without : BG, CY, EE, GR, HR, HU, LU, LV MT, SK, RO

 

Total employment in construction* - Emploi total dans la construction* - Gesamtbeschäftigung im Bauwesen*

 
  Thousand units Variation on previous year
COUNTRY 2021a (x1000) 2019 (%) 2020 (%) 2021a (%) 2022b (%)
AT - Austria 311 3,8 -0,1 4,7 2,9
BE - Belgium 296 1,8 1,1 2,1 1,0
BG - Bulgaria 196 6,5 -2,0 2,1 n/a
CY - Cyprus 39 9,6 2,8 1,5 n/a
CZ - Czech Republic 411 -1,9 4,9 3,9 n/a
DE - Germany 2.607 1,3 1,3 1,1 1,6
DK - Denmark 203 1,8 1,6 4,1 0,5
EE - Estonia 56 4,6 -1,4 8,5 n/a
ES - Spain 1.275 4,6 -2,6 2,5 3,0
FI - Finland 188 -3,0 -1,0 -3,0 -0,1
FR - France 1.870 3,0 1,6 2,5 1,6
GR - Greece 142 -2,6 -4,6 0,7 n/a
HR - Croatia 125 6,9 6,1 2,3 4,4
HU - Hungary 448 5,2 6,3 5,1 n/a
IE - Ireland 150 2,4 -8,2 11,1 6,0
IT - Italy 1.431 -4,4 0,6 7,7 n/a
LT - Lithuania 100 10,9 -9,4 -1,1 n/a
LU - Luxembourg 52 3,9 3,7 3,9 n/a
LV - Latvia n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
MT - Malta n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
NL - Netherlands 491 3,7 0,0 1,9 1,8
PL - Poland 1.289 4,9 1,2 1,3 1,6
PT - Portugal 305 -0,7 -2,5 2,8 1,5
RO - Romania 342 3,5 -2,2 -2,0 3,4
SI - Slovenia 68 5,2 -0,7 5,4 3,2
EU - European Union 13.012 2,1 0,6 2,8 n/a
NO - Norway 229 2,7 -0,4 1,8 -1,3
 
(*) NACE Section F